Our firm uses various cookies on the website to measure the audience and improve the interactivity of the website.

A cookie is a small file stored by a server on a user's terminal (computer, phone, etc.) and associated with a web domain. This file is automatically sent back to the user upon subsequent contacts with the same domain.

Cookies can be used to memorize the language in which the web page is displayed, to trace your navigation for statistical or advertising purposes, etc. Some of these uses are strictly necessary for the functionalities expressly requested by the user or for the establishment of the communication and therefore exempt from consent. Others, which do not correspond to these criteria, require the user's consent before reading or writing.

The distinction between "third-party" and "internal" cookies is technical. When a user visits a website, he/she is in practice consulting a "domain", the contents can be transmitted from the domain he/she is visiting or via other domains that he/she has not entered himself and that belong to third parties. Each cookie is associated with a domain and sent or received each time the browser will "call" that domain. In practice:

  • “Internal" cookies are deposited by the website consulted by the user, more precisely on the domain of the website. They can be used for the proper functioning of the website or to collect personal data in order to track the user's behavior;
  • “Third-party" cookies are cookies deposited on domains other than that of the main website, generally managed by third parties who have been questioned by the website visited and not by the user himself/herself: these cookies may also be necessary for the proper functioning of the website, but they are mainly used to enable the third party to see which pages have been visited on the website in question by a user and to collect information about him/her, particularly for advertising purposes.

Whether cookies are "internal" or "third-party" is a technical distinction that has no bearing on whether or not consent is required. In practice, a large majority of "third-party" cookies have purposes that require consent (e.g., advertising), but one can also find "third-party" cookies that are indeed strictly necessary for a functionality expressly requested by the user and therefore exempt from consent. This is the case, for example, of cookies used solely for federated authentication (when a single account allows access to several sites).